Ælia Capitolina

An important consequence of the Jewish Revolt against Roman domination was the destruction of Jerusalem and the construction of a new city, the Roman colony of Aelia Capitolina, named for Emperor Hadrian (his nomen, or clan name, was Aelius) who ordered its construction.

Jerusalem was transformed into a Greco-Roman city, complete with a Cardo Maximus (main street) and temples dedicated to the Roman divinities in order that all memories of the Jewish presence would be obliterated.

In its new urban setting, the garden of Golgotha found itself in the center of the city. In this same area a pagan temple was erected on an embankment, thus sealing off the ancient remains, as related by Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea in the 4th century and St. Jerome, who lived in Bethlehem from 386 until his death.

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