The Syriac (or Syrian) Orthodox Church of the Antiochene Rite is the direct heir of the ancient Judeo-Christian Church, and today represents Syriac-speaking Christians spread throughout many Middle Eastern countries. The language of its liturgy is Syriac, a language closely related to Aramaic, the ancient language spoken by Jesus. 

A document attests to the presence in Jerusalem of a Syrian bishop already in the 6th century, alongside the Byzantine Patriarch. The seat of the Syrian bishop is at the Church of St. Mark, located between the Armenian and Hebrew quarters, which according to an ancient Jerusalem tradition was the house of Mary, mother of the Evangelist Mark. 

In the Church of the Holy Sepulchre the Syriac Orthodox officiate in the Chapel of Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, located behind the circular ambulatory to the rear of the Edicule of the Tomb, whose ownership is contested by the Armenians.

Other communities